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Annals of Coloproctology (Ann Coloproctol, ACP) is the official journal of the Korean Society of Coloproctology, published bimonthly in English. The Korean Society of Coloproctology, founded in 1986, is a professional medical society that facilitates communication worldwide between individuals pursuing clinical and research excellence in colorectal surgery. Contents of ACP are meaningful for clinicians who are participated in management of colorectal disease such as colorectal surgeons, surgical oncologist, medical oncologist, radiation oncologist, colorectal pathologist, radiologist, and gastroenterologist. Indeed, it also appeals to researchers and clinicians who are interested in low gastrointestinal tract disease. Medical students, administrator, other health professionals, and policy makers would be get information from ACP.
The journal publishes full-length original papers, case reports, editorials, brief communications, letters to the editor, video, and invited review articles in the field of coloproctology. Submitted manuscripts should not contain previously published material and should not be under consideration for publication elsewhere.
Manuscripts for submission to ACP should be prepared according to the following instructions. ACP follows the Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly work in Medical Journals ( from the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE).

Table of Contents


The journal adheres to the guidelines and best practices published by professional organizations, including ICMJE Recommendations and the Principles of Transparency and Best Practice in Scholarly Publishing (joint statement by the Committee on Publication Ethics, COPE; the Directory of Open Access Journals, DOAJ; the World Association of Medical Editors, WAME; and Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association, OASPA; Furthermore, all processes of handling research and publication misconduct shall follow the applicable COPE flowchart (

Authorship credit should be based on: (1) substantial contributions to conception and design, acquisition of data, and/or analysis and interpretation of data; (2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; (3) final approval of the version to be published; and (4) agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of it are appropriately investigated and resolved. Every author should meet all 4 of these conditions. Copyright assignment must also be completed by every author.
For manuscripts with more than 6 authors, a list of each author’s role should accompany the submitted paper.
Correction of authorship: After initial submission of a manuscript, any changes whatsoever in authorship (adding author(s), deleting author(s), or rearranging the order of authors) must be explained in a letter to the editor from the authors concerned. This letter must be signed by all authors of the paper. Annals of Coloproctology does not correct authorship after acceptance for publication unless a mistake has been made by the editorial staff.
  • • A list of each author’s role and ORCID ID should accompany the submitted paper.
  • • Correction of authorship: After initial submission of a manuscript, any changes whatsoever in authorship (adding author(s), deleting author(s), or re-arranging the order of authors) must be explained in a letter to the editor from the authors concerned. This letter must be signed by all authors of the paper. Authors wishing to add or remove an author post-publication must submit a request to the editor. Changes will be done by COPE flowcharts. One of the outcomes of the COPE flowcharts is to publish a correction. For ACP, instead of publishing a correction, corrigendum should be published indicating change.
Any researcher, who does not meet all four ICMJE criteria for authorship discussed above but contribute substantively to study in terms of idea development, manuscript writing, conducting research, data analysis, and financial support should have their contributions listed in the ‘Acknowledgments’ section of the article. We encourage authors to fully acknowledge the contribution of patients and the public to their research where appropriate.
Originality and duplicate publication
All submitted manuscripts should be original and should not be under consideration for publication by other scientific journals at the same time. No part of an accepted manuscript should be duplicated in any other scientific journal without the permission of the Editorial Board. If duplicate publication of any paper published in this journal is detected, the authors will be announced in the journal, their institutions will be informed, and penalties will be imposed upon the authors.
Secondary publication
Manuscripts may be republished if they satisfy the conditions for secondary publication of the ICMJE Recommendations (
Conflict-of-interest statement
The corresponding author must inform the editor of any potential conflicts of interest that could influence the authors’ interpretation of the data. Examples of potential conflicts of interest are financial support from or connections to pharmaceutical companies, political pressure from interest groups, and academically related issues. In particular, all sources of funding applicable to the study should be explicitly stated.
Statement of human and animal rights
Clinical research should be conducted in accordance with the WMA Declaration of Helsinki: Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects ( Clinical studies that do not meet the Helsinki Declaration will not be considered for publication. For human, identifiable information, such as patients’ names, initials, hospital numbers, dates of birth, or other protected healthcare information should not be disclosed. For animal subjects, research should be performed based on the National or Institutional Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, and the ethical treatment of all experimental animals should be maintained.
Registration of clinical trial research
Any research involving a clinical trial should be registered with the primary national clinical trial registry site, such as the Korea Clinical Research Information Service (CRiS,, any other primary national registry site accredited by the World Health Organization (, or (, a service of the United States National Institutes of Health.
Statement of informed consent and IRB approval
Copies of written informed consents should be kept for studies on human subjects. For clinical studies with human subjects, there should be a certificate, agreement, or approval by the institutional review board (IRB) of the author’s affiliated institution. If necessary, the editor or reviewers may request copies of these documents to resolve questions about IRB approval and study conduct.
Description of participants
Ensure correct use of the terms sex (when reporting biological factors) and gender (identity, psychosocial or cultural factors), and, unless inappropriate, report the sex and/or gender of study participants, the sex of animals or cells, and describe the methods used to determine sex and gender. If the study was done involving an exclusive population, for example in only one sex, authors should justify why, except in obvious cases (e.g., prostate cancer). Authors should define how they determined race or ethnicity and justify their relevance.
Processes to manage research and publication misconduct
Should the journal encounter suspected cases of research and publication misconduct, such as a redundant (duplicate) publication, plagiarism, fabricated data, changes in authorship, undisclosed conflicts of interest, an ethical problem discovered with the submitted manuscript, a reviewer appropriating an author’s idea or data, complaints against editors, and other issues, resolution processes will follow the applicable COPE flowchart ( Suspected cases will be discussed and decided upon by the Editorial Board of ACP.
Editorial responsibilities
The Editorial Board will continuously work to monitor and safeguard publication ethics through: guidelines for retracting articles; maintaining the integrity of the academic record; precluding business needs from compromising intellectual and ethical standards; publishing corrections, clarifications, retractions, and apologies when needed; and excluding plagiarism and fraudulent data. The editors maintain the following responsibilities: authority to reject and accept articles; avoiding any conflict of interest with respect to articles they reject or accept; promoting publication of corrections or retractions when errors are found; and preserving reviewers’ anonymity.


Copyright in all published material is owned by the Korean Society of Coloproctology. Authors must agree to transfer copyright during the submission process. The corresponding author is responsible for submitting the copyright transfer agreement to the publisher.
Open access policy
ACP is an open access journal. Articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Author(s) do not need to be permitted for use of tables or figures published in ACP in other periodicals, books, or media for scholarly and educational purposes. This is in accordance with the Budapest Open Access Initiative definition of open access. It also follows the open access policy of Pub Med Central at the United States National Library of Medicine (NLM) (
Open data policy
For clarification on result accuracy and reproducibility of the results, raw data or analysis data will be deposited to a public repository or ACP homepage after acceptance of the manuscript. Therefore, submission of the raw data or analysis data is mandatory. If the data is already a public one, its URL site or sources should be disclosed. If data cannot be publicized, it can be negotiated with the editor. If there are any inquiries on depositing data, authors should contact the Editorial Office for more information.
Archiving policy
The full text of ACP has been archived in PubMed Central (PMC)/Europe PMC (, National Library of Korea ( from the 4th issue of Volume 26, 2010. According to the deposit policy (self-archiving policy) of Sherpa/Romeo (, authors cannot archive pre-print (i.e., pre-refereeing), but they can archive post-print (i.e., final draft post-refereeing). Authors can archive publisher’s version/PDF. ACP provides the electronic backup and preservation of access to the journal content in the event the journal is no longer published by archiving in PubMed Central and National Library of Korea.


ACP focuses on clinical and experimental studies, case reports, reviews, editorials, letters to the editor, and book reviews. Any physicians or researchers throughout the world can submit a manuscript provided its scope is appropriate. Manuscripts should be submitted in English. Medical terminology should be written in accordance with the most recent edition of Dorland’s Illustrated Medical Dictionary.


  • • Online submission: Manuscripts are directly submitted to ACP via the journal’s homepage ( Once you have registered and logged into your account, the online system will lead you through the orderly steps of the submission process. All articles submitted to the journal must comply with these instructions. Failure to do so will result in the return of the manuscript and possible delay in publication. For assistance, please contact us via e-mail (, telephone (+82-2-2040-7737), or fax (+82-2-2040-7735).
  • • Author’s checklist: You will first be requested to complete the Author’s Checklist ( Before submitting a new manuscript, please ensure that every point listed in the Author’s Checklist has been addressed.
  • • Document forms: Before logging into the online submission system, you should prepare the following documents, which you will be asked to upload during electronic submission:
    • - Copyright transfer agreement
    • - Cover letter: A cover letter must be included, indicating the address, telephone and fax numbers, and e-mail address of the corresponding author.
    • - English proof-reading (nonobligatory): Authors may choose to provide a certificate verifying that their manuscript has been edited by an English proofreading service.
Peer review process
  • • Review process: This journal reviews all manuscripts received. A manuscript is first reviewed for its format and then sent to the 3 most relevant reviewers of the field. In addition, if deemed necessary, a review of statistics may be requested. Authors’ names and affiliations are removed during peer review. The acceptance criteria for all papers are based on the quality and originality of the research and its clinical and scientific significance. The decision to accept or reject a manuscript is based on the critiques and recommended decisions of the referees. An initial decision will normally be made within 4 weeks of receiving a manuscript, and reviewers’ comments are sent by e-mail to the corresponding author. Revised manuscripts must be submitted online by the corresponding author. The corresponding author must indicate, item-by-item, the alterations that have been made in response to each of the referees’ comments. Failure to resubmit the revised manuscript within 8 weeks of the editorial decision is regarded as a withdrawal. A final decision on acceptance or rejection for publication is forwarded to the corresponding author by the Editorial Office.
  • • Appeals of decisions: Any appeal against an editorial decision must be made within 2 weeks of the date of the decision letter. Authors who wish to appeal a decision should contact the Editor-in-Chief, explaining in detail their reasons for their appeal. All appeals will be discussed with at least one other associate editor. If consensus cannot be reached thereby, an appeal will be discussed at a full editorial meeting. The process of handling complaints and appeals follows the guidelines of the Committee of Publication Ethics available form ( ACP does not consider second appeals.
  • • Process after acceptance: If the manuscript if finally accepted, the proofreading will be sent to the corresponding author after manuscript editing and/or English proofreading. After proofreading, the manuscript appears at the journal homepage or PubMed as an epub ahead of print. The epub ahead of print version will be replaced by a final PDF if the manuscript was assigned volume, issue, and pages.


General guideline
  • • The main document containing the manuscript text and tables should be prepared using Microsoft Word program.
  • • The manuscript should be double-spaced on 21.6 × 27.9 cm (letter size) or 21.0 × 29.7 cm (A4) paper, with 3.0 cm top, bottom, and left margins.
  • • All manuscript pages should be numbered consecutively, beginning with the abstract as page 1.
  • • Neither authors’ names nor their affiliations should appear on any of the manuscript pages.
  • • Use only standard abbreviations: use of nonstandard abbreviations can be confusing to readers. Avoid abbreviations in the manuscript title. The spelled-out abbreviation followed by the abbreviation in parenthesis should be used on first mention, unless the abbreviation is a standard unit of measurement.
  • • The names and locations (city, state, and country only) of manufacturers of equipment and nongeneric drugs should be given.
  • • When quoting from other sources, give a reference number after the author’s name or at the end of the quotation.
  • • Authors should express all measurements in conventional units, using International System (SI) units.
  • • To make papers more readable and informative, the following should be written in italics:
    • - Biological names of organisms: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, E. coli
    • - Restriction enzymes and some other of enzymes: EcoRI, Taq polymerase
    • - Names of genes: src, c-H-ras, myc
    • - Latin: in vivo, in vitro, in situ
    • - Centrifugation force: 100,000 g
Reporting guidelines for specific study designs
For specific study designs, such as randomized control studies, studies of diagnostic accuracy, meta-analyses, observational studies, and nonrandomized studies, authors are encouraged to also consult the reporting guidelines relevant to their specific research design. A good source of reporting guidelines is the EQUATOR Network ( and the NLM (
Original articles report basic or clinical investigations. Although there is no limitation on the length of these manuscripts, the Editorial Board may abridge excessive illustrations and large tables. An original article manuscript should be organized in the following sequence: title page; abstract and keywords; main text (introduction, methods, results, and discussion); acknowledgments; references; tables; figure legends; and figures. The number of references is limited to 30 for original article.
The cover letter should confirm that neither the submitted material nor portions thereof have been published previously or are under consideration for publication elsewhere. It should also state any potential conflict of interest that could influence the authors’ interpretation of the data, such as financial support from or connections to pharmaceutical companies, political pressure from interest groups, or academically related issues.
  • • Title page: Include the following items on the title page: the paper’s title, the name of the authors, and the name of their current affiliation. If the author’s affiliation is different, then separate it with a semicolon according to the author’s order. For authors with different affiliations, the authors should be marked “1,” “2,” “3,” and so forth in Arabic numerals, which should appear in superscript at the top-right-hand corner of the author’s name and before the affiliation. At the bottom of the title page, write the principal author’s address, phone, fax, and e-mail address, and, if necessary, state the source of any research funding.
  • • Abstract and Keywords: The abstract should be concise, containing no more than 250 words, and describe, using a structured format, the purpose, methods, results, and conclusion of the study. Up to 5 keywords should be listed immediately below the abstract to be used as index terms. We strongly recommend using Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) keywords (
  • • Introduction: Briefly describe the purpose of the investigation, including relevant background information.
  • • Methods: Describe, in the following order, the research plan, materials (or subjects), and methods used. Explain, in detail, how the disease was confirmed and how subjectivity in observations was controlled. When an experimental methodology is the paper’s main focus, describe the process in detail so as to recreate the experiment as closely as possible. The sources of special chemicals or reagents should be given, along with the source location (company name, city, state/province, and country). Methods of statistical analysis and criteria for statistical significance should be described. Studies performed using clinical samples or data, and those involving animals, must include information on the IRB/ethics committee approval or waiver and informed consent. An example is shown below. “We conducted this study in compliance with the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki. The study’s protocol was reviewed and approved by the Institutional Review Board of OO (IRB No. OO). Written informed consents were obtained / Informed consent was waived.”
  • • Results: The results should be presented in a logical sequence in the text. Tables and illustrations and repetitively present the same data in different forms should be avoided. The results should not include material appropriate to the discussion.
  • • Discussion: Observations pertaining to the results of research and other related materials should be interpreted for your readers. Emphasize new and important observations; do not merely repeat the contents of the results. Explain your interpretation of the observations, along with the limits of their application; connect any conclusions to the purpose of the research. In a concluding paragraph, summarize the results and what they mean.
  • • Acknowledgments: All persons who have made substantial contributions, but not met the criteria for authorship, are acknowledged here. All sources of funding applicable to the study should be explicitly stated here.
  • • References: In the text, references should be cited with Arabic numerals in brackets, numbered in the order cited. In the references section, the references should be numbered and listed in order of appearance in the text. List all authors for sources with no more than 6 authors; if there are more than 6, list the first 6 authors followed by “et al.” If an article has been published online, but not yet assigned an issue or page numbers, the digital object identifier (DOI) should be supplied. Journal titles should be abbreviated following the MEDLINE style. Other types of references not described below should follow the NLM’s “Samples of Formatted References for Authors of Journal Articles” (

    • Journal articles:
    • 1. Yoo HY, Choi J, Kim J, Chai YJ, Shin R, Ahn HS, et al. Unexpected appendiceal pathologies and their changes with the expanding use of preoperative imaging studies. Ann Coloproctol 2017;33:99-105.
    • 2. Caselli RJ, Dueck AC. Longitudinal modeling of age-related memory decline and the APOE epsilon4 effect. N Engl J Med 2009;361:255-63.
    • Entire book:
    • 3. Gordon PH, Nivatvongs S, editors. Principles and practice of surgery for the colon, rectum, and anus. 3rd ed. New York, NY: Informa Healthcare USA; 2007.
    • Part of a book:
    • 4. Maa J, Kirkwood KS. The appendix. In: Townsend CM Jr, Beauchamp RD, Evers BM, Mattox KL, editors. Sabiston textbook of surgery: the biological basis of modern surgical practice. 19th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2012. p. 1279-93.
    • Dissertation:
    • 5. Hong GD. The relationship between low serum cholesterol level and cancer mortality [dissertation]. Seoul (KR): Seoul National Univ.; 2017.
    • Conference paper:
    • 6. Rice AS, Brooks JW. Cannabinoids and pain. In: Dostorovsky JO, Carr DB, editors. Proceedings of the 10th World Congress on Pain; 2002 Aug 17-22; San Diego, CA. Seattle (WA): IASP Press; 2003. p. 437-46.
    • Online publication:
    • 7. Matsuda T, Sumi Y, Yamashita K, Hasegawa H, Yamamoto M, Matsuda Y, et al. Anatomy of the transverse mesocolon based on embryology for laparoscopic complete mesocolic excision of right-sided colon cancer. Ann Surg Oncol 2017 Sep 5 [Epub].
    • Online sources:
    • 8. American Cancer Society. Cancer A-Z [Internet]. Atlanta (GA): American Cancer Society; c2017 [cited 2017 Sep 15]. Available from:
    • 9. National Cancer Information Center. Cancer incidence [Internet]. Goyang (KR): National Cancer Information Center; c2016 [cited 2017 Sep 20]. Available from:
  • • Tables: Tables must be numbered in the order in which they are cited in the text. A table’s caption, to be placed immediately above the table, should concisely describe its contents to enable a reader to understand the table without referring to the text. Each table must be simple and typed on a separate page. Explanatory matter is placed in footnotes below the tabular matter, and not included in the caption. All nonstandard abbreviations are also explained in the footnotes. Footnotes should be indicated by superscript a, b, c, d, etc. Statistical measures, such as SD or SE, should be identified. Vertical rules and horizontal rules between entries should be omitted.
  • • Figures: Figures should be submitted as separate files. ACP prefer TIFF format for photographic, raster images, and EPS format for line-arts. Following formats may be suitable in selected images; JPEG/PNG/BMP (suitable for images if the original file format is JPEG/PNG/BMP), PPTX (only for diagrams made in PowerPoint file). It should have minimum width of 107 mm, and a minimum resolution of 300 dpi for color figures, 500 dpi for black and white figures, and 1,000 dpi for line art figures.
It is recommended that drawings and pictures should be in full color. For multiple prints bearing the same figure number, use English letters after numerals to indicate the correct order: e.g., Fig. 1A --, Fig. 1B. Figures should be numbered, using Arabic numerals, in the order in which they are cited. A figure caption should be a one-sentence description, rather than a phrase or a paragraph.
If any tables or figures are taken or modified from other papers, authors should obtain permission through the Copyright Clearance Center ( or from the individual publisher, except where the materials concerned have been published in an open access journal under the Creative Commons license. For tables or figures from an open access journal, simply verify the source of the journal precisely in the accompanying footnote. Please note the distinction between a free-access journal and an open access journal: it is necessary to obtain permission from the publisher of a free-access journal for using tables or figures published therein. Examples are shown below:
Reprinted (Modified) from Tanaka et al. [48], with permission of Elsevier. OR
Reprinted (Modified) from Weiss et al. [2], according to the Creative Commons License of OA Publishing London.
Case reports will be published only in exceptional circumstances, namely when they illustrate a rare occurrence of clinical importance. Case reports should address issues of importance to medical researchers and should preferably contain helpful illustrations. A case report manuscript should be organized in the following sequence: title page; abstract and keywords; main text (introduction, case report, and discussion); acknowledgments; references; tables; figure legends; and figures. The abstract should be unstructured and not exceed 150 words. There should be no more than 5 figures, including tables, and no more than 15 references.
Reviews are invited by the editor and should be comprehensive analyses of specific topics. They are organized as follows: title page; abstract and keywords; main text (introduction, body text, and conclusion); acknowledgments; references; tables; figure legends; and figures. There should be an unstructured abstract of no more than 200 words. The length of the text, excluding references, tables, and figures, should not exceed 7,500 words. The number of references is limited to 100 for review article.
Editorials are invited by the editor and should be commentaries on articles published recently in the journal. Editorial topics could include active areas of research, fresh insights, and debates in all fields of coloproctology. Editorials should not exceed 2,000 words, excluding references, tables, and figures.
Letters to the editor should include brief important comments, useful to readers, concerning previously published articles in the journal. They should not exceed 1,000 words and up to 10 references. The Editorial Board reserves the right to edit letters to the editor and decide whether they should be accepted or rejected for publication.
Video clips are submissions where the video is the major component of the article. Text for video should not be more than 1,500 words. Text should be limited to that which provides a brief introduction to the video only and should NOT include case reports or results. Any editing of the video will be the responsibility of the author(s). The file resolution must be 16:9 or 4:3. Only avi, wmv, mpg, mpeg, mpg-2, mp4, mov, swf, and flv are accepted. After acceptance for publication of the paper to which any video file relates, all copyrights in the video file are automatically transferred to ACP.


Final version
After a paper has been accepted for publication, the author(s) should submit the final version of the manuscript. The names and affiliations of authors should be double-checked, and if the originally submitted image files were of poor resolution, higher resolution image files should be submitted at this time. TIFF, PNG, EPS, PDF, or PPT formats are preferred for submission of digital files of photographic images. Symbols (e.g., circles, triangles, squares), letters (e.g., words, abbreviations), and numbers should be large enough to be legible on reduction to the journal’s column widths. All symbols must be defined in the figure caption. If references, tables, or figures are moved, added, or deleted during the revision process, renumber them to reflect such changes so that all tables, references, and figures are cited in numeric order.
Manuscript corrections
Before publication, the manuscript editor will correct the manuscript such that it meets the standard publication format. The author(s) must respond within 2 working days when the manuscript editor contacts the author for revisions. If the response is delayed, the manuscript’s publication may be postponed to the next issue.
Gallery proof
The author(s) will receive the final version of the manuscript as a PDF file. Within 2 working days of receipt, authors must notify the Editorial Office (or printing office) of any errors found in the file. Any errors found after this time are the responsibility of the author(s) and will have to be corrected as errata or corrigenda (depending on responsibility for the error).
Errata and Corrigenda
To correct errors in published articles, the corresponding author should contact the journal’s Editorial Office with a detailed description of the proposed correction. Corrections that profoundly affect the interpretation or conclusions of the article will be reviewed by the editors. Corrections will be published as corrigenda (corrections of author’s errors) or errata (corrections of publisher’s errors) in a later issue of the journal.


Accepted manuscripts are published on the implicit understanding that the author(s) will pay the costs of publication, including page charges. The basic page charge for the article is USD 300 for all published manuscripts. Illustrations, photographs, electron micrographs, color plates, and other special illustrations will be reproduced at the author’s expense at cost prices.

Waiver policy
ACP waivers to papers whose corresponding authors are based in countries classified by the World Bank as low-income economics as July the year before submitted year. Please request your waiver at the point of submission. To request a waiver please contact In order to ensure that a paper’s waiver status does not influence the editor’s decision about an article, editors are not made aware when a waiver has been granted.


Questions regarding manuscript submission may be sent to:

Moo-Jun Baek, Editor-in-Chief
Room 526, Suseo Hyundai Venture-vill, 10 Bamgogae-ro 1-gil, Gangnam-gu, Seoul 06349, Korea
Tel: +82-2-2040-7737, Fax: +82-2-2040-7735

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Editorial Office
Room 526, Suseo Hyundai Venture-vill, 10 Bamgogae-ro 1-gil, Gangnam-gu, Seoul 06349, Korea
Tel: +82-2-2040-7737    Fax: +82-2-2040-7735    E-mail:                

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